Markus Vinzent's Blog

Amazon Contextual Product Ads

Tuesday, 28 October 2014

Meister Eckhart joking

Working on a new monograph Eckhart's Bible which is based on the finished first fascicle (the Bible-index, created and annotated by Loris Sturlese and me, one of the reasons why over the past weeks I could not post any blog) of the Indices to Meister Eckhart's critical edition (Kohlhammer, Stuttgart) (to be published early 2015), I came across a wonderful joke which shows Eckhart criticising an abbot who had little knowledge of the Old and the New Testament:


... The two corns of the abbot’s mitre represent the two testaments which the abbot should know in his head, while the two lappets that hang down on the shoulders signify the fulfilment of both testaments by following the mandates. A certain person [Eckhart himself, it seems], however, who was asked about the meaning by a certain officer of the kings who saw somebody with little knowledge in both testaments celebrating under a pontifical mitre, answered that the two corns signified, as stated before, the two testaments, but that the lappets of the mitre signified that he knew neither of them, according to that verse from Jer. 12: ‘You are close to their mouth, but far away from their kidneys’.[1]



[1] Eckhart, In Ex. n. 258 (LW II 207,3-11): ‘Quod autem hic dicitur de pectusculo et armo dextro, congruit quod in mitra pontificali duo cornua significant duo testamenta in capite per cognitionem, duae vero dependentiae descendentes ad scapulas significant utriusque testamenti impletionem per mandatorum operationem. Quidam tamen, requisitus a quodam ex regibus, `qui´ cum videret quendam celebrantem sub mitra pontificali parum scientem in utroque testamento, respondit quod duo cornua significabant quidem, ut prius, duo testamenta, dependentiae vero a mitra significabant quod neutra sciebat, secundum illud Ier. 12: 'prope es tu ori eorum, et longe a renibus eorum'’; see Innocentius III, De sacro altaris mysterio I c. 60 (PL 217,796: ‘mitra pontificis scientiam utriusque testamenti significat, nam duo cornua sunt testamenta, duae fimbriae spiritus et littera.’

Friday, 13 June 2014

Jesus versus John the Baptist and Simon Peter - or the heroization of Jesus the Mega-Prophet


Let me explicate the heroization of the Mega-Prophet Jesus in Marcion’s Gospel, compared to the versions we have in Luke, in a sequence of a few pericopes. The reconstruction of Marcion's Gospeltext follows closely that of the forthcoming major monograph by Matthias Klinghardt, Das aelteste Evangelium. It is all the more important for me to work with his textual reconstruction, as this has been done without presuming (or finally denying) Marcion's authorship of the reconstructed Gospel:
 

7:1 After Jesus had finished these words,
he entered Capernaum.
7:2 A centurion there had a slave who was highly regarded, but who was sick and at the point of death. 7:3 When the centurion heard about Jesus, he sent some Jewish elders to him, asking him to come and heal his slave. 7:4 When they came to Jesus, they urged him earnestly,
“He is worthy to have you do this for him,
7:5 because he loves our nation, and even built our synagogue.”
7:6 So Jesus went with them.
When he was not far from the house, the centurion sent friends to say to him, “Lord, do not trouble yourself, for I am not worthy to have you come under my roof.
7:7
Instead, say the word, and my servant must be healed. 7:8 For I too am a man set under authority, with soldiers under me. I say to this one, ‘Go,’ and he goes, and to another, ‘Come,’ and he comes, and to my slave, ‘Do this,’ and he does it.”
7:9 When Jesus heard this,
he was amazed at him. He turned and said to the crowd that followed him, “Amen, I tell you, by nobody in Israel have I found such faith!”
7:10 So when those who had been sent returned to the house, they found the slave well.
7:11 Soon afterward
                   Jesus went to a town called Nain, and his disciples and a large crowd went with him.
7:12 It happened as he approached the town gate, a man who had died was being carried out, the only son of his mother (who was a widow), and a large crowd from the town was with her. 7:13 When the Lord saw her, he had compassion for her and said to her, “Do not weep.”
7:14 Then he came up and touched the bier, and those who carried it stood still. He said, “Young man, I say to you, get up!” 7:15 So the dead man sat up and began to speak, and Jesus gave him back to his mother.
7:16 Fear seized them all, and they began to glorify God, saying, “A great prophet has come forth among us!” and “God has come to help his people!” 7:17 This report about Jesus circulated throughout Judea and to John the Baptist who, having heard his works was scandalized.
7:18 And he called two of his disciples

7:19
and sent them to him to ask,
“Are you the one who is to come, or should we look for another?”
7:20 When the men came to him, they said, “John the Baptist has sent us to you to ask,
‘Are you the one who is to come, or should we look for another?’”
 
 
 
7:22 And he answered them, “Go tell John what your ees have seen and your ears heard: The blind see, the lame walk, lepers are cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead are raised, the poor have good news proclaimed to them.

7:23 Blessed is anyone who is not scandalized by me.”
7:24 When John’s messengers had gone, Jesus began to speak to the crowds about John: “What did you go out into the wilderness to see? A reed shaken by the wind?
7:25 What did you go out to see? A man dressed in fancy clothes? Look, those who wear fancy clothes and live in luxury walk in kings’ courts!
7:26 What did you go out to see? A prophet? Yes, I tell you, and more than a prophet, that among those born of women no one is greater than John, the

Baptist.
7:27 This is the one about whom it is written, ‘Look, I am sending my messenger ahead of you, who will prepare your way before you.’

7:28
Amen I tell you, however, the one who is least in the kingdom of God is greater than he is.”
 





























7:36
Now one of the Pharisees asked Jesus to have dinner with him, so he went into the Pharisee’s house and took his place at the table. 7:37 Then when a woman of that town, who was a sinner,
 
                    7:38 stood behind him at his feet,
          she                          wet his feet with her tears


                    and anointed them with       perfumed oil. 7:39 Now when Simon Peter
said to himself, “If this man were a prophet, he would know who and what kind of woman this is who is touching him, that she is a sinner.” 7:40 So Jesus answered him, “Peter, Simon, I have something to say to you.” He replied, “Say it, Teacher.”









7:44
Then, turning toward the woman, he said to Simon, “Do you see this woman?


she has wet my feet with her tears
 
 
 
and has anointed my feet with perfumed oil.


7:47 Therefore, I tell you, her sins, which were many, are forgiven, thus she loved much.”
                  7:48
Then he said to her, “Your sins are forgiven.” 7:49 But those who were at the table with him began to say among themselves, “Who is this, who even forgives sins?” 7:50 He said to the woman, “Your faith has saved you; go in peace.”
7,1 Καὶ ἐγένετο ὅτε ἐτέλεσεν ταῦτα τὰ ῥήματα
λαλῶν ἦλθεν
εἰς Καϕαρναούμ. 2 ῾Εκατοντάρχου δέ τινος παῖς
κακῶς ἔχων ἤμελλεν τελευτᾶν,
ὃς ἦν αὐτῷ τίμιος. 3 ἀκούσας δὲ
περὶ τοῦ ᾿Ιησοῦ ἀπέστειλεν
πρεσβυτέρους τῶν
᾿Ιουδαίων, ἐρωτῶν αὐτὸν ὅπως
ἐλθὼν διασώσῃ τὸν δοῦλον
αὐτοῦ. 4 οἱ δὲ παραγενόμενοι
πρὸς τὸν ᾿Ιησοῦν ἠρώτων αὐτὸν σπουδαίως, λέγοντες ὅτι
῎Αξιός ἐστιν ᾧ παρέξῃ τοῦτο,
5 ἀγαπᾷ γὰρ τὸ ἔθνος ἡμῶν καὶ
τὴν συναγωγὴν αὐτὸς
ᾠκοδόμησεν ἡμῖν. 6 ὁ δὲ ᾿Ιησοῦς ἐπορεύετο σὺν αὐτοῖς. ἤδη δὲ
αὐτοῦ οὐ μακρὰν ἀπέχοντος ἀπὸ
τῆς οἰκίας ἔπεμψεν ϕίλους. ὁ ἑκατοντάρχης λέγων αὐτῷ,
Κύριε, μὴ σκύλλου, οὐ γὰρ
ἱκανός εἰμι ἵνα ὑπὸ τὴν στέγην μου εἰσέλθῃς·
                                               7 ἀλλὰ εἰπὲ λόγῳ, καὶ ἰαθήτω ὁ παῖς
μου. 8 καὶ γὰρ ἐγὼ ἄνθρωπός εἰμι
ὑπὸ ἐξουσίαν τασσόμενος, ἔχων
ὑπ’ ἐμαυτὸν στρατιώτας, καὶ
λέγω τούτῳ, Πορεύθητι, καὶ
πορεύεται, καὶ ἄλλῳ, ῎Ερχου,
καὶ ἔρχεται, καὶ τῷ δούλῳ μου,
Ποίησον τοῦτο, καὶ ποιεῖ.
9 ἀκούσας δὲ ταῦτα ὁ ᾿Ιησοῦς
ἐθαύμασεν αὐτόν, καὶ στραϕεὶς
τῷ ἀκολουθοῦντι αὐτῷ ὄχλῳ
εἶπεν, Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, παρʼ οὐδενὶ τοιαύτηνπίστιν ἐν τῷ Ἰσραὴλ εὗρον. 10 καὶ ὑποστρέψαντες εἰς τὸν οἶκον οἱ πεμϕθέντες δοῦλοι εὗρον τὸν
ὑγιαίνοντα.7,11 Καὶ τῇ ἑξῆς ἐπορεύθη
εἰς πόλιν
καλουμένην Ναΐν, <
καὶ
συνεπορεύοντο αὐτῷ οἱ μαθηταὶ
αὐτοῦ καὶ ὄχλος πολύς
?> 12 ἐγένετο δὲ ὡς ἤγγισεν τῇ πύλῃ τῆς πόλεως, καὶ
ἰδοὺ ἐξεκομίζετο τεθνηκὼς
μονογενὴς υἱὸς τῇ μητρὶ αὐτοῦ
χήρα
οὖσῃ καὶ
πολὺς ὄχλος τὴς
πόλεως συνεληλύθει σὺν αὐτῇ.
13 καὶ ἰδὼν αὐτὴν ὁ ᾿Ιησοῦς ἐσπλαγχνίσθη ἐπ’ αὐτῇ καὶ εἶπεν
αὐτῇ, Μὴ κλαῖε. 14 καὶ
προσελθὼν ἥψατο τῆς σοροῦ, οἱ
δὲ βαστάζοντες ἔστησαν, καὶ
εἶπεν, Νεανίσκε, νεανίσκε, σοὶ λέγω,
ἐγέρθητι. 15 καὶ ἀνεκάθισεν
νεκρὸς
καὶ ἤρξατο λαλεῖν, καὶ
ἔδωκεν αὐτὸν τῇ μητρὶ αὐτοῦ.
16 ἔλαβεν δὲ ϕόβος πάντας, καὶ
ἐδόξαζον τὸν θεὸν λέγοντες
ὅτι Μέγας
προϕήτης
προῆλθεν ἐν ἡμῖν καὶ ἐπεσκέψατο ὁ θεὸς τὸν
λαὸν αὐτοῦ
. 7,17 καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ὁ λόγος οὗτος ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ ᾿Ιουδαίᾳ περὶ
αὐτοῦ μέχρι ᾿Ιωάννου τοῦ βαπτιστοῦ

18 ὃς <ἀκούσας τὰ ἔργα αὐτοῦ ἐσκανδαλίσθῃ?>
καὶ προσκαλεσάμενος δύο τινὰς τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ

19 {λέγει· πορευθέντες εἴπατε αὐτῷ,}

Σὺ εἶ ὃς ἔρχεις
ἕτερον προσδοκῶμεν
;
20 παραγενόμενοι δὲ πρὸς αὐτὸν
οἱ ἄνδρες εἶπαν, ᾿Ιωάννης ὁ
βαπτιστὴς ἀπέστειλεν ἡμᾶς πρὸς
σὲ λέγων, Σὺ εἶ ὃς ἔρχεις
ἢ ἕτερον προσδοκῶμεν;



22 καὶ
ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς,
Πορευθέντες εἴπατε ᾿Ιωάννῃ
ἃ εἶδον ὑμῶν οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ καὶ
ἃ ἤκουσαν ὑμῶν τὰ ὤτα·
                    τυϕλοὶ ἀναβλέπουσιν, χωλοὶ περιπατοῦσιν, λεπροὶ καθαρίζονται καὶ κωϕοὶ
ἀκούουσιν, νεκροὶ ἐγείρονται,
 πτωχοὶ εὐαγγελίζονται· 23καὶ μακάριος <εἶ? ἐάν?> μὴ σκανδαλισθῇς ἐν ἐμοί.
7,24 ᾿Απελθόντων δὲ τῶν ἀγγέλων ᾿Ιωάννου ἤρξατο λέγειν πρὸς
τοὺς ὄχλους περὶ ᾿Ιωάννου, Τί ἐξήλθατε θεάσασθαι εἰς τὴν
ἔρημον; κάλαμον ὑπὸ ἀνέμου
σαλευόμενον; 25 ἀλλὰ τί
ἐξήλθατε ἰδεῖν; ἄνθρωπον ἐν
μαλακοῖς ἱματίοις ἠμϕιεσμένον;
ἰδοὺ οἱ ἐν ἱματισμῷ ἐνδόξῳ καὶ
τρυϕῇ διάγοντες ἐν τοῖς
βασιλείοις εἰσίν 26 ἀλλὰ τί
ἐξήλθατε ἰδεῖν; προϕήτην; ναί, λέγω ὑμῖν, καὶ περισσότερον προϕήτου, ↑ὅτι οὐδεὶς μείζων ἐν γεννητοῖς γυναικῶν προφήτης Ἰωάννου τοῦ βαπτιστοῦ.↓ 27 αὐτός ἐστιν περὶ οὗ γέγραπται, ᾿Ιδοὺ ἀποστέλλω τὸν ἄγγελόν μου πρὸ προσώπου σου,
ὃς κατασκευάσει τὴν ὁδόν σου.


                 28 Ἀμήν, λέγω ὑμῖν, ὁ δὲ μικρότερος ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τοῦ θεοῦ μείζων αὐτοῦ ἐστιν.
































7,36 ᾿Ηρώτα δέ τις αὐτὸν τῶν Φαρισαίων ἵνα ϕάγῃ μετ’ αὐτοῦ·
καὶ εἰσελθὼν εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ Φαρισαίου κατεκλίθη. 37 καὶ ἰδοὺ γυνὴ <
ἐν τῇ πόλει?>
ἁμαρτωλός


                             
38 στᾶσα ὀπίσω παρὰ τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ,
                       τοῖς δάκρυσιν ἔβρεξε τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ
            
                    
                               καὶ ἤλειϕεν τῷ μύρῳ. 39 ἰδὼν δὲ ὁ {Σίμων <
Πέτρος?>}

εἶπεν ἐν ἑαυτῷ λέγων, Οὗτος εἰ ἦν προϕήτης, ἐγίνωσκεν ἂν τίς
καὶ ποταπὴ ἡ γυνὴ ἥτις ἅπτεται
αὐτοῦ, ὅτι ἁμαρτωλός ἐστιν.
40 καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ ᾿Ιησοῦς εἶπεν πρὸς τὸν Πέτρον, Σίμων, ἔχω σοί τι
εἰπεῖν.
ὁ δέ, Διδάσκαλε, εἰπέ, ϕησίν.









                                                44 καὶ στραϕεὶς πρὸς τὴν γυναῖκα τῷ
Σίμωνι ἔϕη, Βλέπεις ταύτην τὴν γυναῖκα;

                          αὕτη τοῖς δάκρυσιν ἔβρεξέν τοὺς πόδας μου,




καὶ ἤλειψεν καὶ κατεϕίλει.



47 οὗ χάριν λέγω σοι, ἀϕέωνται αἱ ἁμαρτίαι αὐτῆς αἱ πολλαί, ὅτι
ἠγάπησεν πολύ·
                                       48 εἶπεν δὲ αὐτῇ, ᾿Αϕέωνταί σου αἱ ἁμαρτίαι. 49 καὶ ἤρξαντο οἱ συνανακείμενοι
λέγειν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς, Τίς οὗτός ἐστιν
ὃς καὶ ἁμαρτίας ἀϕίησιν;
50 εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς τὴν γυναῖκα, ῾Η
πίστις σου σὲ σέσωκεν· πορεύου
εἰς εἰρήνην.
1Ἐπειδὴ ἐπλήρωσεν πάντα τὰ ῥήματα αὐτοῦ εἰς τὰς ἀκοὰς τοῦ λαοῦ, εἰσῆλθεν εἰς Καφαρναούμ. 2Ἑκατοντάρχου δέ τινος δοῦλος κακῶς ἔχων ἤμελλεν τελευτᾶν, ὃς ἦν αὐτῷ ἔντιμος. 3ἀκούσας δὲ περὶ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ ἀπέστειλεν πρὸς αὐτὸν πρεσβυτέρους τῶν Ἰουδαίων, ἐρωτῶν αὐτὸν ὅπως ἐλθὼν διασώσῃ τὸν δοῦλον αὐτοῦ. 4οἱ δὲ παραγενόμενοι πρὸς τὸν Ἰησοῦν παρεκάλουν αὐτὸν σπουδαίως, λέγοντες ὅτι Ἄξιός ἐστιν παρέξῃ τοῦτο, 5ἀγαπᾷ γὰρ τὸ ἔθνος ἡμῶν καὶ τὴν συναγωγὴν αὐτὸς ᾠκοδόμησεν ἡμῖν. 6 δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἐπορεύετο σὺν αὐτοῖς. ἤδη δὲ αὐτοῦ οὐ μακρὰν ἀπέχοντος ἀπὸ τῆς οἰκίας ἔπεμψεν φίλους ἑκατοντάρχης λέγων αὐτῷ, Κύριε, μὴ σκύλλου, οὐ γὰρ ἱκανός εἰμι ἵνα ὑπὸ τὴν στέγην μου εἰσέλθῃς: 7διὸ οὐδὲ ἐμαυτὸν ἠξίωσα πρὸς σὲ ἐλθεῖν: ἀλλὰ εἰπὲ λόγῳ, καὶ ἰαθήτω παῖς μου. 8καὶ γὰρ ἐγὼ ἄνθρωπός εἰμι ὑπὸ ἐξουσίαν τασσόμενος, ἔχων ὑπ' ἐμαυτὸν στρατιώτας, καὶ λέγω τούτῳ, Πορεύθητι, καὶ πορεύεται, καὶ ἄλλῳ, Ἔρχου, καὶ ἔρχεται, καὶ τῷ δούλῳ μου, Ποίησον τοῦτο, καὶ ποιεῖ. 9ἀκούσας δὲ ταῦτα Ἰησοῦς ἐθαύμασεν αὐτόν, καὶ στραφεὶς τῷ ἀκολουθοῦντι αὐτῷ ὄχλῳ εἶπεν, Λέγω ὑμῖν, οὐδὲ ἐν τῷ Ἰσραὴλ τοσαύτην πίστιν εὗρον. 10καὶ ὑποστρέψαντες εἰς τὸν οἶκον οἱ πεμφθέντες εὗρον τὸν δοῦλον ὑγιαίνοντα. 11Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ ἑξῆς ἐπορεύθη εἰς πόλιν καλουμένην Ναΐν, καὶ συνεπορεύοντο αὐτῷ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ καὶ ὄχλος πολύς. 12ὡς δὲ ἤγγισεν τῇ πύλῃ τῆς πόλεως, καὶ ἰδοὺ ἐξεκομίζετο τεθνηκὼς μονογενὴς υἱὸς τῇ μητρὶ αὐτοῦ, καὶ αὐτὴ ἦν χήρα, καὶ ὄχλος τῆς πόλεως ἱκανὸς ἦν σὺν αὐτῇ. 13καὶ ἰδὼν αὐτὴν κύριος ἐσπλαγχνίσθη ἐπ' αὐτῇ καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῇ, Μὴ κλαῖε. 14καὶ προσελθὼν ἥψατο τῆς σοροῦ, οἱ δὲ βαστάζοντες ἔστησαν, καὶ εἶπεν, Νεανίσκε, σοὶ λέγω, ἐγέρθητι. 15καὶ ἀνεκάθισεν νεκρὸς καὶ ἤρξατο λαλεῖν, καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτὸν τῇ μητρὶ αὐτοῦ. 16ἔλαβεν δὲ φόβος πάντας, καὶ ἐδόξαζον τὸν θεὸν λέγοντες ὅτι Προφήτης μέγας ἠγέρθη ἐν ἡμῖν, καὶ ὅτι Ἐπεσκέψατο θεὸς τὸν λαὸν αὐτοῦ. 17καὶ ἐξῆλθεν λόγος οὗτος ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ περὶ αὐτοῦ καὶ πάσῃ τῇ περιχώρῳ. 18Καὶ ἀπήγγειλαν Ἰωάννῃ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ περὶ πάντων τούτων. καὶ προσκαλεσάμενος δύο τινὰς τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ Ἰωάννης 19ἔπεμψεν πρὸς τὸν κύριον λέγων, Σὺ εἶ ἐρχόμενος ἄλλον προσδοκῶμεν; 20παραγενόμενοι δὲ πρὸς αὐτὸν οἱ ἄνδρες εἶπαν, Ἰωάννης βαπτιστὴς ἀπέστειλεν ἡμᾶς πρὸς σὲ λέγων, Σὺ εἶ ἐρχόμενος ἄλλον προσδοκῶμεν; 21ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ὥρᾳ ἐθεράπευσεν πολλοὺς ἀπὸ νόσων καὶ μαστίγων καὶ πνευμάτων πονηρῶν, καὶ τυφλοῖς πολλοῖς ἐχαρίσατο βλέπειν. 22καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, Πορευθέντες ἀπαγγείλατε Ἰωάννῃ εἴδετε καὶ ἠκούσατε:
          τυφλοὶ ἀναβλέπουσιν, χωλοὶ περιπατοῦσιν, λεπροὶ καθαρίζονται καὶ κωφοὶ ἀκούουσιν, νεκροὶ ἐγείρονται, πτωχοὶ εὐαγγελίζονται: 23καὶ μακάριός ἐστιν ὃς ἐὰν μὴ σκανδαλισθῇ ἐν ἐμοί. 24Ἀπελθόντων δὲ τῶν ἀγγέλων Ἰωάννου ἤρξατο λέγειν πρὸς τοὺς ὄχλους περὶ Ἰωάννου, Τί ἐξήλθατε εἰς τὴν ἔρημον θεάσασθαι; κάλαμον ὑπὸ ἀνέμου σαλευόμενον; 25ἀλλὰ τί ἐξήλθατε ἰδεῖν; ἄνθρωπον ἐν μαλακοῖς ἱματίοις ἠμφιεσμένον; ἰδοὺ οἱ ἐν ἱματισμῷ ἐνδόξῳ καὶ τρυφῇ ὑπάρχοντες ἐν τοῖς βασιλείοις εἰσίν. 26ἀλλὰ τί ἐξήλθατε ἰδεῖν; προφήτην; ναί, λέγω ὑμῖν, καὶ περισσότερον προφήτου.

                      27οὗτός ἐστιν περὶ οὗ γέγραπται, Ἰδοὺ ἀποστέλλω τὸν ἄγγελόν μου πρὸ προσώπου σου, ὃς κατασκευάσει τὴν ὁδόν σου ἔμπροσθέν σου. 28λέγω ὑμῖν, μείζων ἐν γεννητοῖς γυναικῶν Ἰωάννου οὐδείς ἐστιν: δὲ μικρότερος ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τοῦ θεοῦ μείζων αὐτοῦ ἐστιν. 29{Καὶ πᾶς λαὸς ἀκούσας καὶ οἱ τελῶναι ἐδικαίωσαν τὸν θεόν, βαπτισθέντες τὸ βάπτισμα Ἰωάννου: 30οἱ δὲ Φαρισαῖοι καὶ οἱ νομικοὶ τὴν βουλὴν τοῦ θεοῦ ἠθέτησαν εἰς ἑαυτούς, μὴ βαπτισθέντες ὑπ' αὐτοῦ.} 31Τίνι οὖν ὁμοιώσω τοὺς ἀνθρώπους τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης, καὶ τίνι εἰσὶν ὅμοιοι; 32ὅμοιοί εἰσιν παιδίοις τοῖς ἐν ἀγορᾷ καθημένοις καὶ προσφωνοῦσιν ἀλλήλοις, λέγει, Ηὐλήσαμεν ὑμῖν καὶ οὐκ ὠρχήσασθε: ἐθρηνήσαμεν καὶ οὐκ ἐκλαύσατε. 33ἐλήλυθεν γὰρ Ἰωάννης βαπτιστὴς μὴ ἐσθίων ἄρτον μήτε πίνων οἶνον, καὶ λέγετε, Δαιμόνιον ἔχει: 34ἐλήλυθεν υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐσθίων καὶ πίνων, καὶ λέγετε, Ἰδοὺ ἄνθρωπος φάγος καὶ οἰνοπότης, φίλος τελωνῶν καὶ ἁμαρτωλῶν. 35καὶ ἐδικαιώθη σοφία ἀπὸ πάντων τῶν τέκνων αὐτῆς.








36Ἠρώτα δέ τις αὐτὸν τῶν Φαρισαίων ἵνα φάγῃ μετ' αὐτοῦ: καὶ εἰσελθὼν εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ Φαρισαίου κατεκλίθη. 37καὶ ἰδοὺ γυνὴ ἥτις ἦν ἐν τῇ πόλει ἁμαρτωλός, καὶ ἐπιγνοῦσα ὅτι κατάκειται ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ τοῦ Φαρισαίου, κομίσασα ἀλάβαστρον μύρου 38καὶ στᾶσα ὀπίσω παρὰ τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ κλαίουσα, τοῖς δάκρυσιν ἤρξατο βρέχειν τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ καὶ ταῖς θριξὶν τῆς κεφαλῆς αὐτῆς ἐξέμασσεν, καὶ κατεφίλει τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ καὶ ἤλειφεν τῷ μύρῳ. 39ἰδὼν δὲ Φαρισαῖος καλέσας αὐτὸν
εἶπεν ἐν ἑαυτῷ λέγων, Οὗτος εἰ ἦν προφήτης, ἐγίνωσκεν ἂν τίς καὶ ποταπὴ γυνὴ ἥτις ἅπτεται αὐτοῦ, ὅτι ἁμαρτωλός ἐστιν. 40καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτόν, Σίμων, ἔχω σοί τι εἰπεῖν.
δέ, Διδάσκαλε, εἰπέ, φησίν. 41δύο χρεοφειλέται ἦσαν δανιστῇ τινι: εἷς ὤφειλεν δηνάρια πεντακόσια, δὲ ἕτερος πεντήκοντα. 42μὴ ἐχόντων αὐτῶν ἀποδοῦναι ἀμφοτέροις ἐχαρίσατο. τίς οὖν αὐτῶν πλεῖον ἀγαπήσει αὐτόν; 43ἀποκριθεὶς Σίμων εἶπεν, Ὑπολαμβάνω ὅτι τὸ πλεῖον ἐχαρίσατο. δὲ εἶπεν αὐτῷ, Ὀρθῶς ἔκρινας. 44καὶ στραφεὶς πρὸς τὴν γυναῖκα τῷ Σίμωνι ἔφη, Βλέπεις ταύτην τὴν γυναῖκα; εἰσῆλθόν σου εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν, ὕδωρ μοι ἐπὶ πόδας οὐκ ἔδωκας: αὕτη δὲ τοῖς δάκρυσιν ἔβρεξέν μου τοὺς πόδας καὶ ταῖς θριξὶν αὐτῆς ἐξέμαξεν. 45φίλημά μοι οὐκ ἔδωκας: αὕτη δὲ ἀφ' ἧς εἰσῆλθον οὐ διέλιπεν καταφιλοῦσά μου τοὺς πόδας. 46ἐλαίῳ τὴν κεφαλήν μου οὐκ ἤλειψας: αὕτη δὲ μύρῳ ἤλειψεν τοὺς πόδας μου.
47οὗ χάριν λέγω σοι, ἀφέωνται αἱ ἁμαρτίαι αὐτῆς αἱ πολλαί, ὅτι ἠγάπησεν πολύ: δὲ ὀλίγον ἀφίεται, ὀλίγον ἀγαπᾷ. 48εἶπεν δὲ αὐτῇ, Ἀφέωνταί σου αἱ ἁμαρτίαι. 49καὶ ἤρξαντο οἱ συνανακείμενοι λέγειν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς, Τίς οὗτός ἐστιν ὃς καὶ ἁμαρτίας ἀφίησιν; 50εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς τὴν γυναῖκα, πίστις σου σέσωκέν σε: πορεύου εἰς εἰρήνην.
 
7:1 After Jesus had finished teaching all this to the people, he entered Capernaum. 7:2 A centurion there had a slave who was highly regarded, but who was sick and at the point of death. 7:3 When the centurion heard about Jesus, he sent some Jewish elders to him, asking him to come and heal his slave. 7:4 When they came to Jesus, they urged him earnestly, “He is worthy to have you do this for him, 7:5 because he loves our nation, and even built our synagogue.” 7:6 So Jesus went with them. When he was not far from the house, the centurion sent friends to say to him, “Lord, do not trouble yourself, for I am not worthy to have you come under my roof. 7:7 That is why I did not presume to come to you. Instead, say the word, and my servant must be healed. 7:8 For I too am a man set under authority, with soldiers under me. I say to this one, ‘Go,’ and he goes, and to another, ‘Come,’ and he comes, and to my slave, ‘Do this,’ and he does it.”
7:9 When Jesus heard this,
he was amazed at him.
He turned and
said to the crowd that
followed him, “I tell you,
not even in Israel have I found such faith!”
7:10 So when those who had been sent returned to the house, they found the slave well.
7:11 Soon afterward Jesus went to a town called Nain, and his disciples and a large crowd went with him. 7:12 As he approached the town gate, a man who had died was being carried out, the only son of his mother (who was a widow), and a large crowd from the town was with her. 7:13 When the Lord saw her, he had compassion for her and said to her, “Do not weep.” 7:14 Then he came up and touched the bier, and those who carried it stood still. He said, “Young man, I say to you, get up!” 7:15 So the dead man sat up and began to speak, and Jesus gave him back to his mother. 7:16 Fear seized them all, and they began to glorify God, saying, “A great prophet has risen among us!” and “God has come to help his people!” 7:17 This report about Jesus circulated throughout Judea and all the surrounding country.

7:18
John’s disciples informed him about all these things. So John called two of his disciples 7:19 and sent them to the Lord to ask, “Are you the one who is to come, or should we look for another?” 7:20 When the men came to Jesus, they said, “John the Baptist has sent us to you to ask, ‘Are you the one who is to come, or should we look for another?’” 7:21 At that very time Jesus cured many people of diseases, sicknesses, and evil spirits, and granted sight to many who were blind. 7:22 So he answered them, “Go tell John what you have seen and heard: The blind see, the lame walk, lepers are cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead are raised, the poor have good news proclaimed to them.


7:23 Blessed is anyone who takes no offense at me.”
7:24 When John’s messengers had gone, Jesus began to speak to the crowds about John: “What did you go out into the wilderness to see? A reed shaken by the wind?
7:25 What did you go out to see? A man dressed in fancy clothes? Look, those who wear fancy clothes and live in luxury are in kings’ courts!
7:26 What did you go out to see? A prophet? Yes, I tell you, and more than a prophet.



                  7:27
This is the one about whom it is written, ‘Look, I am sending my messenger ahead of you, who will prepare your way before you.’
7:28 I tell you, among those born of women no one is greater than John. Yet the one who is least in the kingdom of God is greater than he is.” 7:29 (Now all the people who heard this, even the tax collectors, acknowledged God’s justice, because they had been baptized with John’s baptism. 7:30 However, the Pharisees and the experts in religious law rejected God’s purpose for themselves, because they had not been baptized by John.)
7:31 “To what then should I compare the people of this generation, and what are they like? 7:32 They are like children sitting in the marketplace and calling out to one another,
‘We played the flute for you, yet you did not dance;
we wailed in mourning, yet you did not weep.’
7:33 For John the Baptist has come eating no bread and drinking no wine, and you say, ‘He has a demon!’ 7:34 The Son of Man has come eating and drinking, and you say, ‘Look at him, a glutton and a drunk, a friend of tax collectors and sinners!’ 7:35 But wisdom is vindicated by all her children.”
7:36 Now one of the Pharisees asked Jesus to have dinner with him, so he went into the Pharisee’s house and took his place at the table. 7:37 Then when a woman of that town, who was a sinner, learned that Jesus was dining at the Pharisee’s house, she brought an alabaster jar of perfumed oil. 7:38 As she stood behind him at his feet, weeping, she began to wet his feet with her tears. She wiped them with her hair, kissed them, and anointed them with the perfumed oil. 7:39 Now when the Pharisee who had invited him saw this, he said to himself, “If this man were a prophet, he would know who and what kind of woman this is who is touching him, that she is a sinner.” 7:40 So Jesus answered him, “Simon, I have something to say to you.” He replied, “Say it, Teacher.” 7:41 “A certain creditor had two debtors; one owed him five hundred silver coins, and the other fifty. 7:42 When they could not pay, he canceled the debts of both. Now which of them will love him more?” 7:43 Simon answered, “I suppose the one who had the bigger debt canceled.” Jesus said to him, “You have judged rightly.” 7:44 Then, turning toward the woman, he said to Simon, “Do you see this woman? I entered your house. You gave me no water for my feet, but she has wet my feet with her tears and wiped them with her hair. 7:45 You gave me no kiss of greeting, but from the time I entered she has not stopped kissing my feet. 7:46 You did not anoint my head with oil, but she has anointed my feet with perfumed oil. 7:47 Therefore I tell you, her sins, which were many, are forgiven, thus she loved much; but the one who is forgiven little loves little.” 7:48 Then Jesus said to her, “Your sins are forgiven.” 7:49 But those who were at the table with him began to say among themselves, “Who is this, who even forgives sins?” 7:50 He said to the woman, “Your faith has saved you; go in peace.”

 

Using this sample text, we can highlight a) the Marcionite character of this sequence of pericopes, and b) the cautious and non-circularity in the reconstruction of this text which is not based on the assumption to produce a typically Marcionite text, but rather follows the evidence of our manuscripts.

 

Let me begin with the first topic, the typical Marcionite character of this sequence of pericopes. We will find two main strands of heroizing Jesus as the one who is not understood and accepted by anybody, except by Proselites, like the Roman officers, or by tax officials, widows, handicapped, people with diseases and sinners. In our case here, we are dealing first with a centurion, then a widow, then a Pharisee and a female sinner who are contrasted with John (and his pupils) on the one side and Jesus’ pupils on the other side, especially Simon Peter. In contrast, Luke has removed precisely these sharp Marcionite contours of the pericope by preserving Jesus’ forgiving the sinner, but turning the story into a hierarchizing of forgiveness.

Marcion first: The line of stories begins with Jesus entering a centurion’s house. Of course, he is not just a centurion, but painted as somebody who was close to the Jewish community (one of the reasons for getting in contact with Jesus). He is praised by the Jewish elders who were sent by the centurion to ask for Jesus and they tell us that the centurion is a lover of the Jewish ethnos and has even financed the building of the Synagogue. And, indeed, the centurion believes in the power of Jesus, as he compares him dealing with diseases, as he is in command with his soldiers. Jesus’ reaction is prompt, and he tells the crowd that ‘by nobody in Israel’ has he found such faith – a clear message that supports ‘Jewish-lovers’ or, as they are sometimes called, ‘god-fearers’, in the Jewish community and contrasts it with the lack of faith ‘in Israel’. Precisely here, Luke felt the need to correct Mcn, stating no longer that Jesus found ‘by nobody’ such faith in Israel, but asserting that he did ‘not even’ (οὐδὲ) find such faith in Israel, meaning neither inside, nor outside of Israel. Luke has removed Jesus’ preference for the ‘Jewish-lovers’ and individualized the story to the one off case of this centurion.

After the healing of the near-dead slave of the centurion, Jesus, his disciples and the crowd enter Nain and this time they are faced with a corps of a dead man, ‘the only son of his mother’, ‘a widow’. Even more powerful than before, Jesus raises the son and gives him back to his mother. As a reaction – the crowd is seized by fear, yet also glorify God, stating that ‘a great Prophet has come forth’ and that ‘God has come to help his people’, the strongest acknowledgement of Jesus being a Μέγας προϕήτης in this Gospel by the crowd and the disciples. Yet, in Mcn, this statement serves to contrast Jesus, the mega-prophet, with John, the Baptist – and here, we find the second correction of Luke who diverts the line of the story away from this confrontation. Without highlighting all the details of difference between Mcn and Luke (for example, the change from ‘Jesus’ to ‘Lord’ in Luke), the first major alteration is that Luke removed the bridge between the previous pericope with the raising of the boy of Nain and the new one of the encounter with John’s pupils, where Mcn introduces John the Baptist as the one who ‘having heard his [Jesus’] works, was scandalized’. Having cut out this strong characterization of John, Luke, however, lost the framing of the entire story, as Jesus’ blessing at the end of the debate with John’s pupils in his address to John’s and his own disciples, comes back to the opening: ‘Blessed is anyone who is not scandalized by me’. Having said this, and once John’s messangers had left, Jesus details this rebuke of John even further, by admonishing the crowd who may have searched for a prophet, and he does not deny that John the Baptist was a prophet, even the greatest ‘born of women’, but he adds that ‘the one who is least in the kingdom of God is greater than he is’. Again, without elaborating here on it – it is important to know that throughout the second century, Marcion was known to have contrasted Jesus with John the Baptist and, as his Gospel stated (Luke 16:16 par.), as is still known in Justin and Irenaeus, that the Law and the Prophets ended with John the Baptist: ‘The law and the prophets existed until John; since then, the kingdom of God has been proclaimed. Therefore, heaven and earth will pass away easier than one tiny stroke of a letter of the Lord’. As Justin rightly understood and Irenaeus reports, the law that ‘originated with Moses’, was ‘terminated with John by necessity’ (Iren., Adv. haer. IV 4). The new edict of the Lord, however, was more robust than heaven and earth could ever be. And yet, again, in this instance, Luke turns Marcion upside down, in replacing ‘the Lord’ and making Jesus say that heaven and earth will pass away easier than one tiny stroke of a letter of the Law’. It, therefore, comes with no surprise that Luke adds the verses 7:29-35 to the pericope that we discussed before, in order to endorse and vindicate wisdom, the Baptist, by criticizing the criticism of John, putting him on par with the criticisms voiced against Jesus and blaming the Pharisees: ‘Now all the people who heard this, even the tax collectors, acknowledged God’s justice, because they had been baptized with John’s baptism. 7:30 However, the Pharisees and the experts in religious law rejected God’s purpose for themselves, because they had not been baptized by John... 7:33 For John the Baptist has come eating no bread and drinking no wine, and you say, ‘He has a demon!’ 7:34 The Son of Man has come eating and drinking, and you say, „Look at him, a glutton and a drunk, a friend of tax collectors and sinners!“’

With the blame of Pharisees, introduced by Luke into this pericope, he prepares already the turnaround of the next pericope, in which Marcion had taken up Jesus’ own disciples in the person of Simon Peter who constantly misunderstands his teacher. This time,

as Matthias Klinghardt has rightly recognized, the Pharisee with his house are only the stage and later on does not play any longer a role in Mcn. In the house, the story of the female sinner who wets his feet and anoints him evolves. And Simon Peter picks up the topic of the two stories before with his statement, full of doubt: ‘If this man were a prophet, he woul know who and what kind of woman this is’? In Jesus’ reply, he does not blame – as in Luke’s version, the Pharisee is being blamed –, but explain, the one who has loved much has received the forgiveness of many sins. Yet, the response of the disciples and the people sitting with Jesus on the table are worry and questioning: ‘Who is this?’

As with the distraction of the criticism of John, turning it to the Pharisee, so does Luke also avoid the criticism of the disciples and Peter by remodelling the story quite drastically. The questioning protagonist is the Pharisee and one is surprised to read that his name ‘Simon’ is introduced late in the story. Moreover, a full blown contrast between the acting of the sinner and that of the Pharisee is being introduced – although the added simile of the ‘credior’ is more than awkward, as it does not elaborate on the contrast, but introduces a hierarchy of forgiveness (bigger debt cancelling ...).

In sum: First, the entire sequence not only displays entirely a theology for which Marcion is known (and sometimes blamed) already in the second century, the text is also more coherent, stringent and a fascinating insight into a clear narrative where Jesus is the one who acts against expectations, remains misunderstood by Israel, the crowd, John’s and Jesus’ own disciples. Second, if one had reconstructed the last pericope on the basis of Marcion’s theology, one would have added the contrasting statements that in Luke set the sinner against the Pharisee, sharpening Jesus’ reaction against Simon Peter. However, as Matthias Klinghardt shows from the manuscript evidence, only the parts of the verses which are attested for Marcion’s Gospel (Luke 7:44b.45b) display the usual variants in a series of Bible manuscripts, especially the Latin tradition (aur b f l q rl a d e ff2), while the others do not.